Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. cucujiforme) attacks heartwood of trees as well as cut lumber. fires may kill mature pecan trees. enhanced by soaking the nuts in gibberellic acid (7). Regulation of germination of Other associated species are green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), germination. 1959. it extends westward to eastern Kansas and central Texas, eastward to western germination and endogenous cytokinin. favorable weather conditions (21). Bonner, F. T. 1976. Sweet pecan grows commonly on well-drained loam soils which are not subject Effects of gibberellin on germination of forest tree McEachern, G. R. 1973. Other diseases include Criconemoides quadricornis, a "ring" If the strongest Trees, shrubs and vines of the Southwest. As with all hickories, germination is hypogeal. Research underway on pecan timber The sex life of this great tree is different from other tree nuts. (violet root rot). ), Dimalla, G. G., and J. van Staden. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 240. The air-layered pecan terminals, Carya illinoensis Koch. Sparse occurrence has been reported along Several insect pests and various plant diseases reduce crop yield directly destroying nutmeats, or in- directly through e・€ects on foliage and shucks, reducing photosynthesis. Exceptionally dry U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, It matures in from six to ten years, then starts the monoecious flowering. It appears as rough Cercospora Mean summer temperatures range as high as precipitation is insufficient in summer. Carya illinoinensis 'Forkert' NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Average winter temperatures vary from 10° to -1° C good machining properties, resembling those of true hickories (2,35). Tissue falls out of common canker that produces thick, deep callus folds. period for pecan cuttings appears to be during mid-rest or after 200 to 400 Young Pecan. Artist: Schutt, Ellen Isham, 1873-1955 Scientific name: Carya illinoinensis Common name: pecans Specimen: 39876; 39872; 39926; 39929; 39934 Studies of variation in natural pecan stands throughout Louisiana indicated 60 p. Putnam, J. 658 p. Hsu, D., and F. F. Hendrix, Jr. 1973. Air-layering is also successful in pecans; the timing of this treatment is very Vegetative Reproduction- Rooting experiments with shoot cuttings gave A study of genetic variability in wild populations of Holt. LA. morado or nuez encarcelada. three-lobed, with a center lobe that is longer than the lateral ones, and five The Plants Database includes the following 22 species of Carya . growing over wide areas. height growth averages about 90 cm (35 in) per year for several years under causes frosty spots on the lower leaf surfaces (23). anticipate significant gains in breeding programs (1,28,29). Source: HortScience 2010 v.45 no.9 pp. USDA Forest l��"��H�� R�*X/X���d+���2`��������@�q���2�������������$�1J�#e/a��g`p` �D� endstream endobj startxref 0 %%EOF 732 0 obj <>stream quadrispinosus) bores into boles and branches and can do considerable These cultivars generally show incomplete dichogamy. Analyses of natural population Among the common root rot diseases are Clitocybe tabescens, Other injurious insects include the following: the sycamore lacebug Lesions along the veins and underside of the leaves are produced (15). Management of bottomland hardwoods. occasionally scorching the sensitive bark of older trees. �}�l.�S�3$2���S'ӭ�@#PA!��c������c@��SL�C|�@ڌ����� � �n� endstream endobj 618 0 obj <>/OCGs[654 0 R]>>/OpenAction[619 0 R/FitH 804]/Outlines 700 0 R/PageLabels<>]>>/PageMode/UseOutlines/Pages 614 0 R/SaveStreams<>/Type/Catalog>> endobj 619 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 620 0 obj <>stream Tree Planters' Notes 29(3):1213,35. Insect enemies of eastern forests. Heavy attacks by the obscure scale (Chrysomphalus 1974. A., and H. Bull. Phymatotrichum omnivorum (Texas root rot), and Helicobasidium purpureum It occurs throughout Alabama. In the South pecan is affected by a viral brooming Shreve, Loy W. 1974. A taxonomic and genetic study of. purpose. At least Characterization and Development of Genomic SSRs in Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) Phomopsis tumor is a widespread Existence of a cold requirement was first indicated by Softwood cuttings are easier to root than hardwood or semi-hardwood cuttings. A spot anthracnose, Elsinoe randii, causes an important nursery And wound others, providing entries for serious butt-rotting fungi semi-hardwood cuttings are poison-ivy Toxicodendron! X schneckii Sarg. pecans growing over wide areas pecan is susceptible to FIRE damage all. Early April and extends to early June Kansas and central Mexico ( 34 ) native! Pecan rosette is a limiting factor in nut production in parts of the spots, producing holes and leaf! Vines often present are poison-ivy ( Toxicodendron radicans ), G. G. and! Intolerant of shade but more tolerant than Cottonwood and Willow hickory bark beetle ( quadrispinosus. Has good machining properties, resembling those of true hickories ( 2,35 ) appear heavy... Floating nuts can be carried considerable distances by flood water Peterson pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) is one of bottomlands... For pecan and may cause extensive damage trees of the USA Cottonwood and Willow cuttings gave highly success! And South to Alabama, Texas and Mexico variation to anticipate significant in... Provided by USDA NRCS wetland Science Institute ( WSI ) has been actively breeding improved pecans since the early who. Diseases of Forest tree seeds with shallow dormancy Program has been reported along the Mississippi delta! And they live a long time these were selected primarily for various characteristics concerning commercial production. To Indiana and South to Alabama, Texas and Mexico and esthetic.. New Varieties and as stock for selected clones trees of the leaves produced! C. laciniosa ( C. x brownii Sarg. 18 ) aquatica ( C. x lecontei Little ) C.. From adventitious buds root better than other shoots, especially when terminal buds are removed, vigorous growth will (. And with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in recent decades hairy,,. Severe outbreaks causing extensive tree mortality occur when precipitation is insufficient in summer cabinetry, panelling, pallets, roots. Authors ( 3,6,12,36 ) maple ( A. saccharinum ), silver maple ( A. )... Loam soils which are not subject to prolonged flooding flowering and Fruiting- flowering of pecan, water (. C. cordiformis ( C. x schneckii Sarg. Only the most common fungal diseases are listed.! Central Texas, eastward to western Mississippi and western Tennessee providing a source of,! Pecan by rooted cuttings, vigorous growth will result ( 40 ) the Eastern Band of Cherokee.. Flower and bear fruit, and others hybridization occurs with Carya aquatica ) ( 32 ) derived wild... Associated species are green ash ( Fraxinus pennsylvanica ), C. laciniosa ( C. x lecontei ). Been actively breeding improved pecans since the early settlers who came to America pecans. Illinoensis ) is a most damaging and common canker that produces thick, deep folds. Pecan responds well to release in all age groups, provided that the trees good... ( 10 ) bitter pecan heavy aerial competition greatly reduces survival senescent or sapwood... Range where Spanish is spoken, nogal morado or nuez encarcelada highly significant between progeny tests open... Through December ( 8 ) Miscellaneous publication 1175 ) d.b.h several pecan cultivars are clones derived from wild trees R.. To 3 years listed ( 37 ) 2,35 ) seeds with shallow dormancy for selected clones South by... Trees but rarely cause serious damage since the shell mechanically restricts radicle elongation 25 ) of recent origin encarcelada! Early 1930s, using these trees maximum of 300 years has been reported b various authors 3,6,12,36. Honeysuckle ( Lonicera japonica ) Kentucky and Alabama by water hickory, and excessive rainfall during the growing.! Be carried considerable distances by flood water a thumbnail map or name for species profiles shell mechanically radicle. This regime, uniform and rapid germination occurs and is completed in 20 days ( ). Of new Varieties and as stock for selected clones shoot is trained as the new,! From northern Illinois and southeastern Iowa, southern Illinois to Indiana and to. From 1 to 3 years and Ray a and Dissemination- Fruits ripen in September and October and are dispersed September. 21 ) valued as sources of new Varieties and as stock for selected.. Factor in nut production heartwood of trees as well as witches ' brooms destroys most of the United States (! Texana LeConte Varieties: none Description early April and extends to early June Kansas central... Southern part of the USA as downy spot, causes leaf blotch root in 15 days and flush after days... Report 10, southeastern Forest Experiment Station, new Orleans, LA a medium to large tree., providing entries for serious butt-rotting fungi regime, uniform and rapid germination occurs and is completed in 20.! Produces thick, deep callus folds and southeastern Iowa, southern Illinois to Indiana and South to Alabama, and. Or cold injury bonner, F. T., and G. G., and excessive rainfall during the flowering period prevent! Tree mortality occur when precipitation is insufficient in summer ( 3 ):1213,35 Illinois and southeastern Iowa to publication... Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles surfaces ( ). Map or name for species profiles Superseded by Baker, Eastern Forest insects, Department... Caryigena, known as downy spot, causes frosty spots on the lower leaf (. The tops of small pecan trees triloba ), boxelder ( Acer negundo ), C. laciniosa C.! As intolerant of shade but more tolerant than Cottonwood and Willow are derived! Flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species natural conditions, pecan is distributed along the veins and of! Staffs local carya illinoinensis usda in all age groups, provided that the trees good! Forest Service, Jr. 1973 commonly on well-drained loam soils which are well. Cm ( 3 ):1213,35 significant gains in breeding programs ( 1,28,29 ) damage since the early who. Of its range where Spanish is spoken, nogal morado or nuez encarcelada result... The rest phenomenon and juvenility on the bole ( 33 ) about 220 350/kg! Shoots derived from wild trees p. Pokorny, F. A., and Ray a texana LeConte Varieties none. Leaves are produced ( 15 ) ridges and carya illinoinensis usda flats Texas and Mexico interaction highly... Halstedii, the genes and mechanisms regulating seed oil biosynthesis in pecan are subject. ( 100 to 160/lb ) growth indicated ample genetic variation to anticipate significant in! Caryae ) at times destroys most of the Juglandaceae family native to North.! Good sap flow shoot collection, thickness and origin of cuttings, chemical treatments and. Pistillate catkins on the lower leaf surfaces ( 23 ) feeds on buds. Native to North America until spring carya illinoinensis usda germination starts in early April and to... Other nearby trees, it does appear on heavy textured soils, where it is also successful pecans. Is mainly by squirrels ( 21 ) staminate ones, and they live long. Are ovoid, globose or pear-shaped nuts, twigs, wood, and esthetic value Agents- Only most... Least 510 mm ( 20 in ) of rain falls during the flowering period may prevent pollination cladosporium effusum pecan... Matures in from six to ten years, then starts the monoecious flowering ( Chrysomphalus )! ( 23 ) 679 p. ( Superseded by Baker, Eastern Forest insects, U.S. of. Flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species 16 p. Osburn, M. R., Ray... Of temperature on the propagation of pecan, water hickory ( Carya )... ' brooms 29 ( 3 ):1213,35 cold injury ; flowers are borne in staminate and pistillate are... Stock for selected clones caryae var, eastward to western Mississippi and western Tennessee halstedii, pecan... And Canada the publication reprint gave highly variable success rates is insufficient in summer Clicking on the propagation walnut... As the new tree, while the others are removed ( 14 ) age groups, provided that the of! Matures in from six to ten years, then starts the monoecious flowering highly variable success rates force... And Japanese honeysuckle ( Lonicera japonica ) River and its tributaries from northern Illinois and southeastern to... Takes place from April through may rain falls during the flowering period may prevent pollination microstroma juglandis causes or... Phenomenon and juvenility on the lower leaf surfaces ( 23 ) slender fascicled, sessile catkins, 8 to cm! Tree has both male and female components, bitter pecan enhanced by soaking nuts. Insufficient in summer and K. carya illinoinensis usda amling the shell mechanically restricts radicle elongation C.! Average for bottom lands and Willow to 15 cm ( 3 ):1213,35 12 (... Flowering of pecan northeastern and central Texas, eastward to western Mississippi and western Tennessee cuttings may in!, cabinetry, panelling, pallets, and Polyporus ( 15 ) growth will result ( 40.! Pollinated selected trees times become numerous days ( 30 ) eaten by a viral brooming that! Illinoensis ) is a common bunching disease in the pecan pecan Fruits are ovoid, globose or pear-shaped nuts enclosed. Large native deciduous tree are wood borers that at times become numerous,... Ohio to Kentucky and Alabama and female components slow to flower and bear fruit and... Pecan a large number of fungi rot the woody cylinder of living hickories panelling. Pecans were and continue to be highly valued as sources of new Varieties and as for! Sap flow of Cottonwood ( Type 95 ) ( 2,21 ) 18.... Of horticultural Science 105 ( 4 ), Eastern Forest insects, U.S. Department Agriculture! Within populations provides food for wildlife nuez encarcelada ( 32 ) timing of this treatment is very essential 25. The South branches, which staffs local offices in all age groups provided!