Farrell, C.E. 2012. PLoS ONE 8:e57457. On June 5, 2003, the Species at Risk Act (SARA) was proclaimed. Advancements and changes in the North American commercial roofing industry. [accessed October 2016]. Climate threats facing the Common Nighthawk. Nesting success is particularly hard to estimate in this species, because the altricial chicks often move away from the nest (Allen and Peters 2012; Kramer and Chalfoun 2012). Aquatic Insects: Challenges to Populations. However, there is no evaluation of effects of these contaminants on this species, which may occur if this species consumes insects that emerge from contaminated wetlands. Boulton, A.J., and P.S. 2010. Was a threats calculator completed for this species? Common Nighthawk is a member of the nightjar family, which comprises well-camouflaged birds, such as Eastern Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus), that feed on flying insects and are mainly crepuscular (active at dawn or dusk) or nocturnal (active at night). 2010). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 47:339–345. Grindal. The common nighthawk in the Greater Toronto Area. Haché, S., pers. The scale and severity of this threat may be negligible overall, but local populations may be severely affected by large projects, such as the planned Site C project that will flood Common Nighthawk habitat along the North Peace River of British Columbia (Siddle 2010). Durocher, A. 2015. Saino, N., R. Ambrosini, D. Rubolini, J. von Hardenberg, A. Provenzale, K. Hüppop, O. Hüppop, A. Lehikoinen, E. Lehikoinen, K. Rainio, M. Romano, and L. Sokolov. Conversely, wildfires create un-vegetated areas that are often selected for nesting (Weeber et al. Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Paquette, S.R., F. Pelletier, D. Garant, and M. Bélisle. Expansion of agricultural land has leveled off in recent decades, although agricultural intensification, such as increased farm area and growth in high-input, high-yield crops, including corn and soybeans, is continuing in western Canada and much of the U.S.A. (Smith 2015). Cambridge University Press, New York. Sánchez-Azofeifa, S.J. 2001), continues on both the breeding and wintering ranges of Common Nighthawk (see Habitat Trends, above). Smith A.C., Hudson M.-A.R., Downes C.M., and Francis, C.M. Studies show that wind turbines are not generally a threat to this species. However, there is no evidence that this is an issue, and little information on how this species would be affected. Males defend territories from as small as 1.5 ha in northeastern Alberta (Knight pers. No collections were examined in the preparation of this report. PLoS ONE 10:e0130768. Risley, C. - Species Conservation Branch, Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Peterborough, Ontario. They adapted to urbanization by making use of flat, gravel-covered rooftops as nest sites. 2004. It is extremely well-camouflaged by its mottled brown plumage when perched on the ground or horizontal surfaces. Managing Common Nighthawks at McConnel Air Force Base, Kansas, to reduce aircraft strikes. * See Definitions and Abbreviations on COSEWIC website and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (Feb 2014) for more information on this term. - PhD Candidate, Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. 2014. Estimates of avian mortality attributed to vehicle collisions in Canada. The nesting phenology of birds in Canada. 2015; English et al. Common Nighthawk appears to be an opportunistic generalist in its choice of foraging habitats, often aggregating in areas that attract concentrations of flying insects, such as waterways and lighted areas (Brigham et al. Patterns of organochlorine pesticide contamination in neotropical migrant passerines in relation to diet and winter habitat. Baskaran, B.A., R.M. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 82:235-262. Bird Conservation Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Whitehorse, Yukon. Provincial or regional breeding bird atlases, in which volunteers search for breeding evidence of all species within a region over a five-year period, also provide trend information. 2017). comm. 2017), although well-established for birds in other systems (e.g., Hipfner 2008). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. The construction of new dams dries out lowland habitat downstream (e.g., Bennett dam), which may impact insect populations. Jones, T., and W. Cresswell. The Atlas of Breeding Birds of Alberta: A Second Look. Nighthawks are closely related to owls, with similarities in DNA and many morphological ­structures as well as plumage. Jung, T. - Senior Wildlife Biologist, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Environment Yukon, Whitehorse, Yukon. Indeed, the northern limit of the species’ breeding range in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut is uncertain, because of limited search effort. Five of seven males fitted with satellite tags at breeding sites in northeastern Alberta completed a full annual cycle to wintering grounds and back to Alberta. Journal of Climate 23:3057-3076. Flaspohler, and L.M. The nightjar family includes the whip-poor-will and the common poorwill. [accessed September 2017]. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Donald, P.F., R.E. It breeds throughout the contiguous United States and locally south into Central America. in preparation). Common Nighthawk: Medium nightjar with white-speckled, dark upperparts, black-and-white barred underparts, mottled breast, white throat. The Condor 116:8-23. 2007) and Eastern Whip-poor-will (English et al. Higgins. Impact of Hurricane Wilma on migrating birds: the case of the Chimney Swift. Reasons for designation: This aerial insectivore is a widespread breeding bird across southern and boreal Canada. Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation): Not applicable. Newberry, G., and D.L. 2014. It is unknown whether the threats are reversible, although widespread ones are likely not. This suggests that the pattern of pronounced long-term decline has been lessening in recent years. Morrissey, and K.A. Buse. 2010. The effect of 50 years of landscape change on species richness and community composition. Common Nighthawk is protected under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, which protects the birds, their nests, and eggs from harm and disturbance anywhere it is found in Canada. 2006). 2001; McLachlan 2007; Ng 2009). The nightjar family includes the whip-poor-will and the common poorwill. Ecological Applications 20: 525-538. 2017), and certain threats, such as predation (Latta and Latta 2015) and collisions (Fense et al. Cadman, and A. Salvadori. An increasing frequency of severe or extreme weather events is also likely impacting this species by reducing its productivity and increasing mortality. The causes of decline are not well known, but include threats that reduce the numbers of aerial insects on which this species forages, which can be attributed to agricultural and other pesticides, and changes in precipitation, temperature and hydrological regimes. 2011; Dirzo et al. Knight, E.C., J.W. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0130768. First full annual cycle tracking of a declining aerial insectivorous bird, the Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor), identifies migration routes, non-breeding habitat, and breeding site fidelity. Grice, D.G. xi + 50 pp. Common Nighthawks arrive in the Northwest Territories to breed in mid- May to early June. Hobson, G. Albrecht, M.D. Second Atlas of Breeding Birds of the Maritime Provinces. 2017), which constitutes most of this species’ Canadian range. Canadian Field-Naturalist 123:338–345. Recovery Strategy for the Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) in Canada. The Auk 131:351-362. Whether this attraction yields a net benefit has not been examined for nighthawks, but has been for bats, in which any benefit of increased food appears to be outweighed by disruption of daily routines and increased risk of predation (e.g., Rydell et al. University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan. In prairie regions, the species occurs more in grassland than cropland, especially areas with short grass, few shrubs, and a nearby source of water (Pidgeon et al. data). In 1978, COSEWIC designated its first species and produced its first list of Canadian species at risk. 2003). Assessing the relative use of clearcuts, burned stands, and wetlands as breeding habitat for two declining aerial insectivores in the boreal forest. (Species at Risk Public Registry). 2016. Journal of Applied Ecology 39:673-687. Agricultural intensification and the collapse of Europe's farmland bird populations. Nonetheless, changes in temperature regimes and temperature extremes may be detrimental. 2011) and the Canadian Recovery Strategy for this species (Environment Canada 2016). 2007). 2011), but is presumed to be one year. Occurrence: Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador. Regional surveys and historical accounts suggesting declines before the 1990s are reviewed by COSEWIC (2007). As a consequence, the BAM population estimate is considered here to be the more appropriate. Models predict an increase in the incidence of fires and gradual expansion of habitats into lowlands north of boreal forest, with a likely net positive benefit for the species. When atlas projects are repeated, usually at 20-year intervals, atlas data can provide rather coarse information on changes in distribution and abundance. For example, while forest clearing or grassland conversion may reduce the availability of insects, it may also increase the availability of nest sites (Environment Canada 2016). Species profile: The Uncommon Common Nighthawk. 2017. Red flag for green spray: adverse trophic effects of Bti on breeding birds. Presented at the Annual meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union (132nd Stated Meeting), the Cooper Ornithological Society (84th Stated Meeting), and the Society of Canadian Ornithologists, 23-28 September, 2014, Estes Park, Colorado. Eggs and nestlings are vulnerable to a wide range of mid-sized predators, including corvids, gulls, raptors, domestic dogs and other canids, skunks, Raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossums, and snakes (Brigham et al. This is particularly true during peaks in energy needs, such as chick-rearing and migration, when a change in insect availability, or in the timing of peaks in insect abundance, can have a disproportionate effect on energy budgets. comm. comm. Invasive and other problematic species and genes, This ground-nesting species is likely exposed to predation by cats (including feral cats) and the Norway Rat (, Nest predation by native predators (e.g., by Raccoon, American Crow, Grey Jay (, Problematic species/diseases of unknown origin. Roost selection and roosting behaviour of male Common Nighthawks. Livestock farming and ranching may be both a threat and potential benefit to this species. Common Nighthawk can breed by its second year, lays 1-2 eggs, and raises one brood per year. 2008). 22, Saskatchewan Natural History Society (Nature Saskatchewan), Regina, Saskatchewan. population of Common Nighthawks is estimated to breed in Canada (Rich et al. Ellis, R.H.A. 2014b. Common Nighthawk breeds in central and southern Yukon (north to the Dawson area; Sinclair et al. 2000. Influence of climate on annual survival of Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica) breeding in North America. The Birds of Manitoba. 2.1 and 2.3 Agricultural (non-timber) crops, livestock farming and ranching (Negligible) Despite this, the major threats to Common Nighthawks are habitat loss and agricultural development. 2017. Journal of Animal Ecology 83:729-739. eBird. comm. Butchart, B. Collen, N. Cox, L.L. Lethal organochlorides, such as DDT, are banned in North America, but are still present in insectivorous migrant birds as they return there to breed after wintering in Central and South America, where such chemicals continue to be used (Klemens et al. Timing of foraging flights of three species of bats in relation to insect activity and predation risk. A few studies show that at least some adults return to the same nest site for up to five years (Brigham et al. - Research Scientist, Wildlife Research Division, Wildlife and Landscape Science Directorate, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Québec, Québec. Stewart, R.L.M., K.A. 2002. The assigned overall threat impact is High-Low, and the following contributing threats were identified, listed in decreasing order of severity: 7.3 Other ecosystem modifications (High-low) Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus and Woodlark Lullula arborea: recovering species in Britain? Roads thus provide benefits in terms of food availability, roosts and associated cleared habitat. Common Nighthawk has such a broad distribution and faces so many potential threats that its number of locations (i.e., distinct areas vulnerable to particular threats) cannot be calculated, but is certainly much greater than ten. Submitted. The female Common Nighthawk performs all incubation duties, but will leave the nest to feed. - Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Québec, Québec. 2015). Despite the presence of three subspecies of Common Nighthawk in Canada, separated on the basis of minor differences in plumage colouration, there is no evidence for discrete genetic or morphological differences among them (Brigham et al. Dirzo, R., H. S. Young, M. Galetti, G. Ceballos, N.J.B. Status re-examined and designated Special Concern in April 2018. What is plot of the story Sinigang by Marby Villaceran? 2017; Walker pers. dying out. Wilson, S., pers. 2014; see also Van Wilgenburg et al. The threats to Common Nighthawks reviewed below are categorized following the IUCN-CMP (International Union for the Conservation of Nature – Conservation Measures Partnership) unified threats classification system, based on the standard lexicon for biodiversity conservation of Salafsky et al. Hannon, and R. Chapman. Avery, R.L. McCracken, and P.D. Perera, A.H., and L.J. Scientific Reports 7:1902. eBird, Ithaca, New York. Canadian Journal of Zoology. The common nighthawk is not an endangered species. Since the previous status report, Common Nighthawk population size and trends based on the Breeding Bird Survey have been re-estimated using new methods (Smith et al. Large-scale conversion of forest to agriculture in the boreal plains of Saskatchewan. The largest-scale information on Common Nighthawk population trends comes from the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), in which volunteer observers record all birds encountered on early mornings from late May to early July during three-minute stops along roadside routes distributed throughout the United States and much of southern and central Canada (Downes et al. Brigham, M. - Professor, Department of Biology, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan. 2007. Alexander, C. J. Beardmore, P. J. Blancher, R. E. Bogart, G. S. Butcher, A. F. Cam eld, A. Couturier, D. W. Demarest, W. E. Easton, J.J. Giocomo, R.H. Keller, A. E. Mini, A. O. Panjabi, D. N. Pashley, T. D. Rich, J. M. Ruth, H. Stabins, J. Stanton, and T. Will. The following statements provide further evidence for such causal relationships: those aerial insectivore species that are declining the most pass the winter in countries that spend the most on insecticides (Nocera et al. Its population in southern Canada has declined by 68% since 1970, but the rate of decline has slowed appreciably over the past decade, and the species appears to be quite abundant in suitable boreal habitats. Nighthawk nestlings are semiprecocial i.e., newly hatched young are downy, with open eyes and some capability of leaving the nest, and they often move well away from the nest site daily (up to 48 m), increasingly so as they age (Allen and Peters 2012; Kramer and Chalfoun 2012). Huigens, R. Groendijk, O. Poitevin, J.R. Deijk, W.N. Oikos 76:243-252. Peterson and L.G. Kishtawal C., N. Jaiswal, R. Singh, and D. Niyogi. Russell, R. - Wildlife Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966 - 2015. Bryant, L. Cole, and H.Q.P. When did organ music become associated with baseball? Marra. Frick, A.P. Tranmer, R.J. - MSc student, Ecological Restoration, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia. Travis, and D. Drake. 2005. 2014. 2015; Environment Canada 2016; Center for Conservation Biology 2017; Knight 2017). Like other members of the nightjar family, its broad mouth is specialized for scooping insects in flight. Latta. WildResearch Nightjar Survey 2016 Annual Report. Submitted. These birds exist on the planet at least 400.000 years. 238-262 in N.M. Collins and J.A. Haché, S. - Landbird Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. 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