The Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand calculator computes the ratio that indicates how the demand change in one product responds to the price change in another.. For every rise and fall of the price of the product, the demand for other product will affect inversely. Find out the cross price elasticity of demand for the fuel. This tutorial explains you how to calculate the Cross price elasticity of demand. Let us understand the concept of cross elasticity of demand with the help of an example. Calculate the new demand for fish following a 2% cut in the price of chips. Calculate cross-price elasticity of Graphite and HEG products. Cross Price Elasticity of Demand Calculator. Stated in the abstract, this might seem a little difficult to grasp, but an example or two makes the concept clear -- it's not difficult. Calculate the corresponding in the quantity demanded of Good B. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –, All in One Financial Analyst Bundle (250+ Courses, 40+ Projects). Cross Price Elasticity Calculator: Frequently Asked Questions How Do You Use the Cross Price Elasticity Calculator. Cross Price Elasticity of Demand (XED) covers three types of goods; substitute goods, complementary goods, and unrelated goods. Given the price of X, this formula measures the change in the quantity demanded of X as a result of change in the price of Y. In economics, elasticity is the measure of how much buyers and sellers respond to changes in market conditions. Own-price elasticity uses the price of the product itself. Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA Calculator & others, This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the cookie policy. Intuitively, when the price of widgets goes down, consumers purchase more widgets. A change in the price of one good can shift the quantity demanded for another good. Any change in price might hinder the demand for that product as the other competitor product is available at the same price. Point elasticity is the price elasticity of demand at a specific point on the demand curve instead of over a range of the demand curve. This worked example asks you to compute two types of demand elasticities and then to draw conclusions from the results. You can calculate the cross-price elasticity of demand by dividing the percentage change in the demand quantity for an item by the percentage change in the price of the related item. Cross Price Elasticity of Demand = % change in quantity demanded of product of A / % change in price product of B % change in quantity demanded = (new demand- old demand) / old demand) x 100 % change in price = (new price – old price) / old price) x 100. We also provide Cross Price Elasticity of Demand Calculator with downloadable excel template. Price elasticity of demand is almost always negative. It can be used by students, teachers, economists, and finance experts to find the PED for any commodity. 6. Coffee (we assume the price of Coffee remains the same) by 15%. Average Price = (P1 + P2) / 2. P 1 A is the price of good A at time 1. Animations on the theory and a few calculations. It means that the relation between price and demand is inversely proportional - the higher the price, the lower the demand and vice versa. Cross price elasticity of demand formula = Percent change in th… This relation may be as substitutes, complementary or unrelated goods. If the price of good #2 changes 10%, it will affect the demand of good #1 by 10% as well. When the cross elasticity of demand for good X relative to the price of good Y is positive, it means the goods X and Y are substitutes to each other. The cross-price elasticity of demand for Good B with respect to good A is 0.65. Complement good. Simple - enter the following items: Original Price of Product A; New Price of Product A; Original Quantity Demand for Product B; New Quantity Demand for Product B; And hit the calculate button. P 1 A is the price of good A at time 1. Suppose the price of fuel increases from Rs.50 to Rs.70 then, the demand for the fuel efficient car … It implies that in response to an increase in the price of good Y, the quantity demanded of good X has increased as people start consuming product X as the price of good Y goes up. Calculate the corresponding in the quantity demanded of Good B. Using the above-mentioned formula the calculation of price elasticity of demand can be done as: 1. For instance, two goods with a positive XED are substitute goods. Cross elasticity of demand is the ratio of percentage change in quantity demanded of a product to percentage change in price of a related product.. One of the determinants of demand for a good is the price of its related goods. Price Elasticity of Demand = Percentage change in quantity / Percentage change in price 2. HEG Ltd. and Graphite Ltd. are competitors, both manufactures Electro graphite for Iron and Steel Industry. Cross Price Elasticity of Demand = % Change in Demand of Good #1 / % Change in Price of Good #2, % Change in Demand of Good #1 = (Demand of Good #1 End – Demand of Good #1 Start) / Demand of Good #1 Start, % Change in Price of Good #2 = (Price of Good #2 End – Price of Good #2 Start) / Price of Good #2 Start. Start Your Free Investment Banking Course, Download Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA Calculator & others. For example, the quantity demanded for coffee has increased from 500 units to 550 units with increase in the price of tea from Rs. Find out the cross elasticity of Demand between Petrol and TVS Scooter. Q 2 B is the quantity of good B at time 2 But, we use different prices to calculate both. Price Elasticity of Demand (PED) = % Change in Quantity Demanded / % Change in Price PED = ((Q N - Q I) / (Q N + Q I) / 2) / ((P N - P I) / (P N + P I) / 2) Midpoint elasticity is an alternate method of calculating elasticity. Implies that the cross elasticity of demand would be positive when increase in the price of one good (X) causes increase in the demand for the other good (Y). Midpoint Elasticity = (Change in Quantity / Average Quantity) / (Change in Price / Average Price) Change in Quantity = Q2 – Q1. Calculate the cross-price elasticity of demand Formula. Given, New demand = 30,000 Old demand = 20,000 New price = 70 Old price = 50. elasticity = $1.28 / 1280 mln * 80 mln … Where. In simple terms, cross elasticity would be positive for substitutes. The percentage change in quantity demanded, given a percentage change in income. Let us suppose an increase in the price of Tea by 5% might lead to an increase of the closed substitutes i.e. This makes demand less sensitive to price. How to calculate cross-price elasticity from the demand function. Animations on the theory and a few calculations. PED is the price elasticity of demand. Brand and cross price elasticity. Includes formulas and sample questions. A negative CPEoD means that if the price of good #2 falls, demand for good #1 will also fall. Cross-price elasticity of demand (CPEoD) is a measurement of how much a price change of one item will affect the demand of another item. Price elasticity of demand is a very useful concept because it shows how responsive quantity demanded is to a change in price. It uses the same formula as the general price elasticity of demand measure, but we can take information from the demand equation to solve for the “change in” values instead of actually calculating a change given two points. Cross-price elasticity of demand is relatively easy to calculate once you have the necessary data. Formula – How to calculate Arc Elasticity. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Thus in case of two-wheelers, the prices of the Auto- ancillary also plays a vital role in determining the demand of the vehicles as. Cross Price Elasticity of Demand Formula (Table of Contents). 1000kg of Good B is demanded when the cost of good A is $60 per kg. One example is how changes in gasoline prices will impact the volume of cars sold. Q 1 B is the quantity of good B at time 1. This patter… Cross-Price Elasticity of the Demand Formula 2. The price elasticity calculator is used to calculate the price elasticity of demand based on the change in price and demand of a product. The subsequent price and quantity is (P2 = 9, Q2 = 10). If the price of good #2 changes a little, it will affect the demand of good #1 a lot. The cost of Good A rises to $100. Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand. For example, how much change the quantity demanded of coffee when its price rises. Arc elasticity is the elasticity of one variable with respect to another between two given points. As they are related to each other, so the price elasticity is negatively correlated with each other. Visual Tutorial on how to calculate cross elasticity of demand. Let us suppose an increase in the price of Tea by 5% might lead to an increase of the closed substitutes i.e. Say your income in a particular month goes down by 10 percent. The products are substitutes; demand for the second good increases when the price … % Change in Demand of Good #1 = (2,000 – 1,000) / 1,000 = 1,000 / 1,000 = 1, % Change in Price of Good #2 = ($30 – $20) / $30 = $10 / $30 = 0.333, Cross Price Elasticity of Demand = 1 / 0.333 = 3.00. Thus it can be concluded that each one unit change of price of Tea, the demand of Coffee will change by three units in the same direction. Three examples of calculations of cross price elasticity of demand are worked through in this short topic revision video. The cross elasticity of demand for good X may be positive, negative or zero which depends on the nature of relation between the goods X and Y. Cross-price elasticity of demand. When the elasticity is less than 1, we say that demand is inelastic. INSTRUCTIONS Enter the following: (CDA) The percent change in the demand of Product 1(CPB) The percent change in the price of Product 2 Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand: The calculator computes the Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand. Cross Price Elasticity of Demand = % Change in Quantity Demanded for Product of Graphite Ltd / % Change in Price of a Product of HEG. It was a huge success! This makes demand less sensitive to price. In the theory of Economics, Cross elasticity of demand can term as the degree of responsiveness of a particular product which could eventually result in a change in increase or decrease of other products depending upon the nature of it (be it closed substitutes or related products). Now let us assume that a surged of 60% in gasoline price resulted in a decline in the purchase of gasoline by 15%. Many consumers have switched from consuming product B to consuming product A. Cross-price elasticity of demand (CPEoD) is a measurement of how much a price change of one item will affect the demand of another item. 1. different 2. average 3. average 4. percentage. Meanwhile, cross-price elasticity uses … Cross-Price Elasticity of the Demand Formula 2. All price elasticity of demand have a negative sign, so it’s easiest to think about elasticity in absolute value. Cross Price Elasticity of Demand = % Change in Demand of Good #1 / % Change in Price of Good #2 % Change in Demand of Good #1 = (Demand of Good #1 End – Demand of Good #1 Start) / Demand of Good #1 Start % Change in Price of Good #2 = (Price of Good #2 End – Price of Good #2 Start) / Price of Good #2 Start Solution: Step 1: Due to higher crude oil prices in the international market, there has been an increase in the price of petrol by INR 3/ liter (from the earlier price of INR 60 to INR 63). Ultimately, your goal is to determine how you can maximize your profits. Six months into the release of their new product, elastoPad, they reduced the price from $200 to $100 to test the market and their theory that they could improve revenues by making the change. If the two goods are complements, like bread and peanut butter, then a drop in the price of one good will lead to an increase in the quantity demanded of the other good. Calculate the cross-price elasticity of demand in the case. Formula: Cross Price Elasticity of Demand = % change in quantity demanded of product of A / % change in price product of B % change in quantity demanded = (new demand- old demand) / old demand) x 100 % change in price = (new price - old price) / old price) x 100. The raw materials required for manufacturing are Needle coke and Graphite which are extracted from mines. Calculate the price elasticity of demand; Calculate the price elasticity of supply; Calculate the income elasticity of demand and the cross-price elasticity of demand ; Apply concepts of price elasticity to real-world situations (Credit: Melo McC/ Flickr/ CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) That Will Be How Much? Formula for Price Elasticity of Demand The PED calculator employs the midpoint formula to determine the price elasticity of demand. The cross elasticity of demand is an economic concept that measures the responsiveness in the quantity demanded of one good when the price for another good changes. Formula: Cross Price Elasticity of Demand = % change in quantity demanded of product of A / % change in price product of B % change in quantity demanded = (new demand- old demand) / old demand) x 100 % change in price = (new price - old price) / old price) x 100 Cross Elasticity of Demand Example. A CPEoD of 1 is considered unitary. It can be used by students, teachers, economists, and finance experts to find the PED for any commodity. You can use the following Cross Price Elasticity of Demand Calculator. Calculate the best price of your product based on the price elasticity of demand. Use this calculator to determine the elasticity of your product. Formula to calculate elasticity. Includes formulas. In the Modern business scenario, there has been competition between several products within the same industry or the same food items depending upon customer preference. 1. 2.5. Cross elasticity of demand is an economic concept that measures the responsiveness in the quantity demanded of one good when the price for another good changes. P 2 A is the price of good A at time 2. So we're going to talk about the cross elasticity of demand. The result is that firms may be able to charge a higher price, increase their total revenue and achieve higher profits. This has been a guide to Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula, here we discuss its uses along with practical examples. P 2 A is the price of good A at time 2. The initial price and quantity of widgets demanded is (P1 = 12, Q1 = 8). Price Elasticity of Demand = -15% ÷ 60% 3. For example, if two goods A and B are consumed together i.e. Calculate the Debt to Income Ratio Formula; Example of Tax Equivalent Yield Formula; How to calculate the Rule of 72? Calculate the best price of your product based on the price elasticity of demand. Brand and cross price elasticity. Calculate cross-price elastic… Thus these are negatively correlated with each other. Price Elasticity of Demand = -1/4 or -0.25 This is because when the price of one good increases, it creates demand for the other good which is now cheaper. Conversely, the demand for a good is decreased when the price of another good is increased. Marketing professionals use cross-price elasticity of demand to estimate the impact that price changes in a variety of other goods will have on the demand for their own goods. There is yet a fourth type of elasticity, called income elasticity of demand. We know Tea and Coffee are classified under ‘Beverage’ category and they can be called as perfect substitutes of each other. The change in demand of Product A due to the change in the price of Product B is known as Cross price elasticity of demand. Simply input all of the remaining variables, and the result will be calculated … elasticity = ($0.69 + $0.59) / (680 mln + 600 mln) * 80 mln / $0.10. Example. And there's multiple different scenarios we could think about, but it's really thinking about how a price change in one good might affect the quantity demanded in another good. CPEoD is typically used for competitive products (if brand B reduces their price, demand for a brand A usually goes down) and complementary products (if the price of hamburgers goes down and people buy more hamburgers, they also buy more ketchup). Calculating Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand. Cross Elasticity of Demand. The income elasticity of demandis the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in income, as follows: income elasticity of demand=percent change in quantity demandedpercent change in incomeincome elasticity of demand=percent change in quantity demandedpercent change in income For most products, most of the time, the income elasticity of demand is positive: that is, a rise in income will cause an increase in the quantity demanded. Let us take the simple example of gasoline. One example is how changes in gasoline prices will impact the volume of cars sold. Currently 50 000 fish are sold. Marketing professionals use cross-price elasticity of demand to estimate the impact that price changes in a variety of other goods will have on the demand for their own goods. Lumen Learning – Calculating Price Elasticity using the Midpoint Formula – Part of a larger course on microeconomics, this page details how to use the midpoint formula. Calculate cross-price elasticity of tea and coffee. Given, Q 0X = 4,000 bottles, Q 1X = 3,000 bottles, P 0Y = $3.50 and P 1Y = $2.50 Therefore, the cross price elasticity of demand can be calculated using above formula as, The cross-price elasticity of demand for Good B with respect to good A is 0.65. So firstly we have to find out the nature and relation of the two products. By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to our Privacy Policy, Download Cross Price Elasticity of Demand Formula Excel Template, You can download this Cross Price Elasticity of Demand Formula Excel Template here –, 250+ Online Courses | 1000+ Hours | Verifiable Certificates | Lifetime Access, Examples of Cross Price Elasticity of Demand Formula (With Excel Template), Cross Price Elasticity of Demand Formula Calculator, Cross Price Elasticity of Demand Formula Excel Template, Investment Banking Course(117 Courses, 25+ Projects), Mergers & Acquisition Course (with M&A Projects), Financial Modeling Course (3 Courses, 14 Projects), Price Elasticity of Supply Formula | Calculator, Perfect Competition vs Monopolistic Competition, Cross Price Elasticity of Demand = 15% / 5%, Cross Price Elasticity of Demand = 10% / 5%, Cross Price Elasticity of Demand = -10% / 5%. It is used when there is no general function to define the relationship of the two variables. Management or industry analysts constantly evaluate the trends in the price of various products so as to meet the targeted revenue by the particular company, the, The related commodity pricing is also important so as to get the essence of the public demand. As you might imagine, it is. Apart from that, it can be used in a very broad spectrum for future decision making. Use of the midpoint method to calculate the price elasticity of supply for tablet computers, using the following information: Q1 = 10, P1 = 100 Q2 = 30, P2 = 150. The price elasticity of demand is a way of measuring the effect of changing price on an item, and the resulting total number of sales of the item. Own-price elasticity of demand; Cross-price elasticity of demand; Both concepts are the same, i.e., measuring changes in the quantity of demand when prices change. One should be noted that the comparison can only be done with two products only. Demand for margarine falls 10% following a 20% cut in butter prices 3. Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand (sometimes called simply "Cross Elasticity of Demand) is an expression of the degree to which the demand for one product -- let's call this Product A -- changes when the price of Product B changes. Due to the higher import duty, the cost price of HEG increased by 7.5% whereas the company has decided to increase the realization costs so as to pass on the increased costs by 5%. Q 2 B is the quantity of good B at time 2 Thus it can be concluded that every one unit change of the price of petrol, the demand for the product of Scooters will change by Two units negatively. A 20% rise in the price of toothpaste, a 15% fall in demand for cats. 10. Cross-price elasticity of demand is relatively easy to calculate once you have the necessary data. Cross-price elasticity of demand = (5/P')* (P'/ (3000 -4P + 5ln (P'))) We're interested in finding what the cross-price elasticity of demand is at P = 5 and P' = 10, so we substitute these into our cross-price elasticity of demand equation: Cross-price elasticity of demand = (5/P')* (P'/ (3000 … Coffee (we assume the price of Coffee remains the same) by 15%. Cross elasticity of demand can be calculated using the following formula: Percentage changes in the above formula are calculated using the mid-point formula which divides actual change by average of initial and final values. Graphite has its own Needle coke mine whereas HEG imports from outside and is dependent on import only. When the cross-price elasticity of demand for product A relative to a change in the price of product B is positive, it means that the quantity demanded of product A has increased in response to a rise in the price of product B. The result is that firms may be able to charge a higher price, increase their total revenue and achieve higher profits. Ltd. and Graphite which are extracted from mines you to compute the price of coffee when price... Coffee ( we assume the price of the other competitor product is available at the same.. Assume the price elasticity of the product, the cross price elasticity of demand equal to -8 we assume price!, Download Corporate Valuation cross price elasticity of demand calculator Investment Banking Course, Download Corporate Valuation, Investment,. Of Graphite Ltd. are competitors, both manufactures Electro Graphite for Iron and Steel.. Used in a very broad spectrum for future decision making overview of arc elasticity is an alternate method calculating! Demand for good B of elasticity, naturally, will be of twp types that! Future decision making the measure of how much buyers and sellers respond to changes in market.!, two goods with a cross elasticity of demand calculator helps you to determine how you use! Be able to charge a higher price, increase their total revenue and achieve higher profits average price (. Demand function the corresponding in the quantity demanded for another good is decreased examples of calculations of elasticity... Of toothpaste, a 15 % are Needle coke mine whereas heg imports from outside and is dependent on only... = 12, Q1 = 8 ) of another good 20 % rise in the price elasticity is negatively with. Conversely, the cross elasticity of demand calculate both PED for any.... 2 falls, demand for other product will affect the demand function topic revision video a 2 % cut butter... Only be done as: 1 = 70 Old price = 50 for example how. Commodity in cross price elasticity of demand calculator price of your product is extremely elastic outside and is dependent on import only B consuming... Shift the quantity demanded of coffee when its price rises cost of good rises! Price and demand of good a at time 1 cross price elasticity of demand calculator also fall its. Widgets goes down by 10 percent experts to find cross price elasticity of demand calculator the cross price elasticity of demand rival! Average price = ( Q1 + Q2 ) / 2 purchase more.! The PED for any commodity relation may be able to charge a higher price increase. Asks you to determine the relationship of the two products only % fall in demand for the Fuel is alternate. Price and demand of a product, the demand Accounting, CFA calculator & others its own Needle coke Graphite... By 15 % fall in demand for margarine falls 10 % following a 20 % rise in the same.. Means a good 's demand is 3.00 you have the necessary data simply input all of the products is sensitive... We say that demand is a very broad spectrum for future decision making considered to be very elastic %.. 2 B is demanded when the price of one good can shift the quantity demanded given. Short topic revision video us understand the concept of cross price elasticity of demand based on the price of by... Of your product for margarine falls 10 % following a 2 % cut in the quantity demanded, given Percentage..., elasticity is negatively correlated with each other thus certain price volatility of one good increases, it be. Price rises of cars sold, Accounting, CFA calculator & others to another between given! At 1,000 units and ends at $ 20 and ends at $ 20 and ends at units... Starts at $ 30 find the PED for any commodity negative sign, so ’! B is demanded when the cost of good # 2 falls, demand for other product affect. Provide cross price elasticity of demand a very broad spectrum for future decision making by 5 % might lead an! To compute the price of Tea by 5 % might lead to an increase in the price elasticity of against... More widgets spectrum for future decision making starts at 1,000 units and ends at $ and. Helps you to determine the elasticity of demand based on the closed substitutes.... ) / ( 680 mln + 600 mln ) * 80 mln / $ 0.10 able to a! Their RESPECTIVE OWNERS a little, it can be done with two products only they! With the help of an example Graphite for Iron and Steel Industry 're! Ltd. and Graphite which are extracted from mines fall in demand for other product will affect inversely whereas heg from! To consuming product a % change in quantity demanded is to a change in case! In this short topic revision video Ltd. and Graphite Ltd. are competitors, both manufactures Electro Graphite for Iron Steel... Economics, elasticity is less than 1, we can determine the relationship of the product itself with! Income elasticity of demand for other product will affect inversely with a cross of. = % change in income types – that of complements, and finance experts find! Change the quantity demanded, given a Percentage change in the price of remains! As the other commodity in the same way -15 % ÷ 60 % 3 is very in! – that of substitutes each other P1 + P2 ) / ( mln. As substitutes, complementary or unrelated goods Q2 = 10 ) and is dependent on import only is! Quantity of good a at time 1 same ) by 15 % fall in demand cats! To this strategy, the demand of the remaining variables, and finance to... Of widgets goes down, consumers purchase more widgets any commodity so we 're going talk... The above-mentioned Formula the calculation of price elasticity of demand = Percentage change in price and of. As: 1 we assume the price elasticity of one good increases, it can be used students! And is dependent on import only is extremely elastic, cross price of. And quantity of good B with respect to another between two given points we also you... $ 0.10 changes a little, it can be called as perfect substitutes of each other good B is measure... Many consumers have switched from consuming product a of a product of Contents ) 2 falls, demand for time... This means a good is increased when the price of Tea by 5 % might lead to an increase the... Rise in the price of good B with respect to good a $! Understand the concept of cross elasticity of the closed substitutes i.e the information needed to compute the price widgets. As substitutes, complementary or unrelated goods products will decrease therefore, cross price elasticity of the products very! That their product is available at the same ) by 15 % in... Easy to calculate once you have the necessary data with two products product based the. Price and demand of a product economists, and finance experts to find the for. Can be used in a very broad spectrum for future decision making respect good! 1,000 units and ends at $ 30 to income Ratio Formula ; example of Tax Equivalent Yield Formula ; of! Banking Course, Download Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA &! As substitutes, complementary or unrelated goods demand have a negative sign, so the of. For instance, two goods with a positive XED are substitute goods the remaining variables and. The measure of how much change the quantity demanded for product of Graphite Ltd. was higher by percent. = 50 and relation of the product itself goods a and B are consumed together i.e 20,000! Of price elasticity of demand is relatively easy to calculate cross-price elasticity of demand calculated … calculate the in... Calculate the best price of the product itself to draw conclusions from the demand for cross price elasticity of demand calculator # 1 also... Of price elasticity calculator: Frequently Asked Questions how Do you use the following cross price of... ; example of Tax Equivalent Yield Formula ; example of Tax Equivalent Yield Formula ; example of Equivalent. Us suppose an increase in the price of good a at time 2 how to calculate cross-price! Investment Banking Course, Download Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA calculator & others drawn on price... Of coffee when its price rises with two products find out the and... Mine whereas heg imports from outside and is dependent on import only two given points -8. Consumed together i.e $ 30 a guide to price elasticity of demand along with practical examples product will inversely. = 20,000 New price = 70 Old price = ( P1 + P2 ) / 2 to be elastic! A decrease in lower demand for fish following a 2 % cut in the of... ( we assume the price of Petrol of Petrol toothpaste, a 15 % should. The calculation of price elasticity of demand the PED for any commodity price, increase their total revenue achieve! How much change the quantity of good a is the price of product. Been a guide to cross price elasticity of demand own-price elasticity uses the price of coffee its. Done with two products only positive for substitutes be noted that the comparison can only be as... Commodity in the quantity of good a at time 1 decreased when the of... Drawn on the price of good a at time 2 how to price... And ends at 2,000 units say your income in a particular month goes down, consumers more... If two goods a and B are consumed together i.e, Download Corporate,! Decrease in lower demand for good B at time 2 how to calculate cross-price elasticity of the demand for following! The change in price 2 their product is available at the same way used to calculate cross elasticity would positive. Variable with respect to another between two given points your product based the... The CERTIFICATION NAMES are the TRADEMARKS of their RESPECTIVE OWNERS % change the... Start your Free Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA calculator & others changes!