As a crowd of neighbors gathered around her, the weeping and hysterical white housewife claimed that a “Nigger” had attacked her. So, if you’re able to close that wealth gap, it gives you the resources to survive pandemics when you’re not employed or you’re not getting your paycheck, kids who can’t afford their apartments can come home and stay with parents who are in a house that has their mortgage paid, etc. He was called a special master that would handle these cases and so, it came through that “neutral” sort of mechanism. Sandra Bass: Oh, I’m sorry, I just want to do a quick time check. So, a family of four then would be entitled to 40 acres and a mule. 40 passed, you’re going to have to have a senate that will vote on it and then a president who will sign it. Linda Robinson And then, the situation evolves from there, the posse goes out, any Black they stop, they question about where this escaped convict is, they shoot Blacks along the way, they torture people to try to get information, they go to the house of Sylvester Carrier, Army war veteran. Sandra Bass: Absolutely. I look at Rosewood and Tulsa in my work because there are so many similarities, then it becomes striking that the outcomes were different. So, we’d seemed to have solved lots of the problems that affected us during that period, including climate change, gender inequality, et cetera. So, after the failure of these pension plans, we could turn to the 1960s as the next cycle of reparations demands, and one of the things that’s kind of unique about this cycle is we have a demand on private individuals, corporations, associations, as well as a demand on the government itself. It struck me that, in this vision of Utopia in the future, we get to solve the problem of seeing Blacks as an integrated and equal whole of the rest of society. So, this is a turnaround in public opinion. One of those involved survivors of Rosewood, and when Rosewood was successful, people in Tulsa started organizing, etc. Ashley Broadus We see upward mobility in the white community, but we see downward mobility in the Black community. Professor Henry was Distinguished Fulbright Chair in American History and Politics at the University of Bologna in Italy and also was one of the first two Fulbright-Tocqueville Distinguished Chairs in France teaching at the University of Tours, I hope I pronounced that correctly, and Chancellor Birgeneau also presented Henry with the Chancellors Award for Advancing Institutional Excellence in April 2008. The first thing to note is that both Rosewood and Tulsa are cases in which legal redress was tried and failed, and it was a legislative strategy that was successful. The American National Election surveys for those of you who are more social science oriented has asked questions about race, race and racial relations, and if you read the New York Times, you know that Thomas Edsall often quotes a lot of recent research on race in the columns that he does. As they’re leaving, a white tries to disarm a Black and gets shot and all hell breaks loose. Between the period of roughly 1895 and 1915, there were roughly 15 pension associations involving some 5 million Blacks. There were congressional hearings, finally after 30 years, in the summer 2019 on H.R, 40, the original bill that Congress had submitted. So, let’s have a Marshall plan for the Negro.”. So, you have on the one hand, the demands of Black nationalist organizations, you also have demands from civil rights leaders. What guidance would you give for groups who are working in that space? So, we find that the legislative route, in terms of both the local and state level, has been more favorable than the legal route in most cases. I’ve seen other figures that say one-tenth the wealth, but a sort of one-time cash payment of a few thousand dollars really doesn’t close that wealth gap at all. There was racial violence in 25 cities in the United States, Chicago being the most prominent. Certainly, if you look at our history, if you look at mainstream news and we look at eight of our presidents before the Civil War, they were slave owners. I’m going to have to start moving faster than usual. Charles Henry: Well, I mean we can talk both about elected officials and non-elected officials and, of course, the elected officials, most of the efforts behind H.R. Oxford and Glasgow universities have paid reparations to people in the Caribbean for their role in the slave trade and offered scholarships and research money on reparations, as have a number, as Dr. Bass has mentioned, of American universities. Online Payments - Traffic Tickets and Fines NOTE: Use of a web browser that supports Cookies and Javascript, and enabling such features, is a requirement for searching public case records. The Circuit Clerk of Berkeley County is responsible for recording and maintaining all Circuit Court records concerning the following: Civil Cases Magistrate Appeals; ... Public terminals are available for searching some case types that are open to the public. This has been wonderful, it’s so appreciative of Professor Henry for sharing his time with us today, and thank you for joining us for this latest offering in the America’s Unfinished Work series with OLLI. When the pension associations closed down as World War One came along and they were not successful, and actually Callie House was harassed by the federal government and jailed, they went into Marcus Garvey’s, many of them went into Marcus Garvey’s organization. In the case of Berkeley, look at LeConte Hall and who it’s named after, for example. So, even today, we’re finding the consequences of Tulsa. Berkeley County is located in the Shenandoah Valley in the Eastern Panhandle region of West Virginia in the United States. Many had been very silent about this, and their kids and grandkids knew very little about it. Fellowships for Undergraduates and Recent Graduates. Well, that has helped create the wealth gap that gives whites more wealth than Blacks. However, an attorney cannot guarantee success of an H-1B application nor can an attorney obtain an H-1B for an unqualified person. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. So, we have to look at what our students are being taught in their schools and what’s happening locally, in terms of police brutality or homelessness or segregation in terms of housing, who’s living next to you? We got a couple of questions about the truth and reconciliation process. What do you think is the strength and weaknesses of that approach? If they were there at all, it would be a totally different perspective, it was like if you read the white newspapers after Tulsa and the Black newspapers, it was like people were in two different universes. You would see that reflected, for example, in the candidacy of someone like Bernie Sanders, and respondents in another poll favoring cash reparations to descendants of slaves rose from 14% to 29%. Charles Henry: Give me two minutes, and then I’m done. A very significant factor in this is that the sheriff in Tulsa deputizes 500 whites to serve as his sort of posse and they go into the Black community. And these are two of the most prominent sort of cases. Christopher Barnhart 40, a bill to create a study commission that would issue recommendations in terms of African American reparations. Elizabeth "Liz" Hott The clerk called the police and claimed that Roland had attempted to rape Paige, although there is no record of what Paige said to the police. Gallup reported in the last year to a 20% rise in liberalism among white Democrats. Catie Wilkes Delligatti, Assistant Prosecuting Attorneys 2120 Martin Luther King, Jr. Way A very significant case, because it relates to the Black Lives Matter movement and others, is that the Chicago City Council agreed to pay reparations to victims of police torture in a particular precinct in Chicago. That doesn’t help you buy a home, for example. We have North Carolina, within the last year or so, agreeing to pay reparations to victims of forced sterilization and there were about 7,000 of them in a period from, I think, the 1920s to the 1950s in North Carolina. So, there’s a kind of domino effect flowing from the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 and we have action on the local level, as well. This appealed to Cuban Americans who had their land confiscated by Fidel Castro and the Cuban government, and even though most of them were conservative Republicans, they supported the reparations claim of Rosewood and that was a key in getting through the state legislature. There are actions around universities so if you’re a college student, look at your university’s history, look how it’s benefited or not. It was suggested that each of the 4 million slaves should be entitled to 10 acres of confiscated or abandoned confederate land and that the many mules that had been working in the Civil War be leased out or loaned to those to help to the new freed men to help them work this land. Incidentally, there’s a large number of victims of forced sterilizations in California, as well. Joseph Kinser John Hope Franklin was raised around Tulsa, the Dean of Black historians, and only very late in his career discussed Tulsa at all, so there’s this kind of erasure of history that Baldwin is hinting at. This legislation was passed and signed by Ronald Reagan and benefited about 120,000 Japanese Americans. Newsom signed a bill that would open the door for providing reparations to African American descendants of slaves in California. We’ve got just about 15 minutes left, and I wanted to make sure we got to some of the questions. One of the things I didn’t talk about when I talked about 40 acres and a mule, was at the same time, they’re talking about 40 acres and a mule, the Homestead Act passes in 1866 and there’s several Homestead Acts. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! And the fact that there’s an absence of Black equality in the Utopia tells us that something about our visions of the future that have emerged from our past histories, and that’s why I want to talk reparations briefly as kind of cycles. Colonization was still an option for some. Dutch and French governments, after study commissions, have agreed to repatriate stolen art back to Africa. If you have one thing that you wanted people to gather from our time together today and really thinking about the possibilities of reparations in the U.S., what would you share? These feelings very polarized Dr. Henry can I interrupt you for just one?! 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