McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2017. Hydro-Québec was also created in an attempt to nationalize Québec's electric companies. Their victory was characterised by a political turn from Catholicism to secularism, which had been brewing socially before the election. There was a dramatic change in the role of nuns, which previously had attracted 2–3% of Québec's young women. The Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec (CDPQ, Québec Deposit and Investment Fund) was created in 1965 to manage the considerable revenues generated by the RRQ and to provide the capital necessary for various projects in the public and private sectors. "Quebec's Entrepreneurial Revolution and the Reinvention of Montreal: Why and How It Happened. The Quebec independence movement focused on language and culture, and no longer saw Quebec as the stronghold of Catholicism. Secularism in Quebec, such as it is, is inextricable from the under-examined Catholic legacy of the Quiet Revolution and the ideology of maîtres chez nous. Quiet Revolution, period of rapid social and political change experienced in Québec during the 1960s. [29], The perception of the Quiet Revolution as a great upheaval in Québec society persists (with significant merit), but the revisionist argument that describes this period as a natural continuation of innovations already occurring in Québec cannot be omitted from any discussion on the merits of the Quiet Revolution. [33] Several scholars have lately sought to mediate the neo-nationalist and revisionist schools by looking at grassroots Catholic activism and the Church's involvement in policy-making. ", Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act, Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, "Media — Rocket Richard: The Legend, The Legacy", "Loud Start To The Quiet Revolution: March 17, 1955: The Riot Over Rocket Richard", "Education in Québec, before and after the Parent reform", "La révolution tranquille, rupture ou tournant? Maurice Duplessis, who was Premier from 1944-1959, and was repeatedly taken to court for discriminatory actions against Jehovah’s Witnesses, who were (and remain) a religious minority within Quebec (Seljak). The Quiet Revolution put thousands of clerics out of jobs and hundreds of churches onto the real estate market, but it didn’t eliminate religion in the province. [36][37] In 1961, Prime Minister Diefenbaker instituted the National Hospital Insurance Plan, the first public health insurance plan adhered to by all the provinces. [10] For example, the opening of Hydro-Québec meant that skilled engineers needed to be hired.[12]. The Quiet Revolution of the 60s and 70s, which saw the rapid modernization of Québec, also saw its secularization. The Quiet Revolution typically refers to the efforts made by the Libera… The Quiet Revolution has kept only two of those pillars— language and culture — as bases of Quebec’s new projet de societe. That period, known as the Quiet Revolution, is remembered in part for the awakening of a modern national consciousness in Quebec. Micheline D'Allaire, "Les Religieuses du Quebec dans le Courant de la Laicisation", Donald Cuccioletta and Martin Lubin. Radical views began to take root in Quebec. Beneath the surface, experts on Quebec history and culture … The Quiet Revolution was a period of dramatic social and political change that saw the decline of Anglo supremacy in the Quebec economy, the decline of the Roman Catholic Church's influence, the formation of hydroelectric companies under Hydro-Québec and the emergence of a pro-sovereignty movement under former Liberal minister René Lévesque. In 1968, the sovereigntist Parti Québécois was created, with René Lévesque as its leader. Often ex-nuns continued the same roles in civilian dress; and for the first time men started entering the teaching profession. Many left the convent while very few young women entered. The conservative approach of the Catholic Church was the major force in Quebec society until the reforms of the Quiet Revolution during the 1960s. Several historians have studied the Quiet Revolution, presenting somewhat different interpretations of the same basic facts. Its notable achievements include nationalizing the electricity distribution network of the city of Montreal, granting universal suffrage, instituting mandatory schooling until the age of 14 and establishing various social programs in Québec. [citation needed], Alphonse-Marie Parent presided over a commission established in 1961 to study the education system and bring forth recommendations, which eventually led to the adoption of several reforms, the most important of which was secularization of the education system. [36], Federal politics were further influenced by the election of Pierre Elliot Trudeau in 1968. From an economic perspective, Quebec’s manufacturing sector had seen important growth since the Industrial Revolution. The charisma and charm he displayed throughout his whirlwind campaign swept up much of the country in what would be referred to as Trudeaumania. Buoyed by significant manufacturing demand during World War I and World War II, the Québec economy was already expanding before the events of the Quiet Revolution. In 1977, during their first term in office, the Parti Québécois enacted the Charter of the French Language, known more commonly as Bill 101, whose goal is to protect the French language by making it the language of business in Québec, as well as restricting the use of English on signs. [9] Moreover, secondary schools had placed a lot more emphasis on the liberal arts and soft sciences than the hard sciences. The Quiet Revolution combined declericalization with the dramatic reforms of Vatican II. It witnessed particular changes to the built environment and social structures of Montreal, Québec's leading city. Johan D. Tangelder May,1996. In fact a lot of the churches have been sold and converted into condos. [38] The rise to power of arguably Canada's most influential Prime Minister was unique in Canadian politics. Joseph. They were supported by Monsignor Charbonneau (Bishop of Montreal), the Québécois nationalist newspaper Le Devoir, and a small group of intellectuals. ", "La révolution tranquille, rupture ou tournant? [40] By the end of the 1960s, Trudeau had also passed legislation decriminalizing homosexuality and certain types of abortion. French-Canadians in Québec also adopted the new name 'Québécois', trying to create a separate identity from both the rest of Canada and France and establish themselves as a reformed province. In 1966, the National Medicare program was created. [citation needed] Radio-Canada, the newspaper Le Devoir and political journal Cité Libre were intellectual forums for critics of the Duplessis government. Once a child has been permitted to attend an English primary or high school, the remaining children in that family are also granted access. ", David Seljak, "Why the quiet revolution was ‘Quiet’: the Catholic church’s reaction to the secularization of nationalism in Quebec after 1960. The English-French relations have not always been easy. A small faction of Marxist sovereignists began terrorist actions as the Front de libération du Québec, the zenith of their activities being the 1970 October Crisis, during which British diplomat James Cross as well as Labour Minister Pierre Laporte were both kidnapped by FLQ cells, with Laporte eventually being killed. In Quebec, Canada, the Quiet Revolution (Révolution Tranquille) of the 1960s saw a radical nonviolent transformation in the politics, society and economy of Quebec.A traditional people modernized the economy and the social structure, threw off Church control, rejected Anglo control of Quebec's economy, and finally sought, but failed, to gain independence from Canada. All this hatred and differences started in the past, and this Quiet revolution, right after a new Liberal government led by Jean Lesage came in 1960. By the early 1960s, there were more than 1,500 school boards, each responsible for its own programs, textbooks and the recognition of diplomas according to its own criteria. Up until this point, the Catholic Church was deeply rooted in the culture of Quebec, as well as the political sphere. Until 1960, Catholicism was the de facto provincial religion, in charge of education and other social services. The Quiet Revolution was a period of unbridled economic and social development in Québec and Canada and paralleled similar developments in the West in general. The Quiet Revolution (French: Révolution tranquille) was a period of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in the Canadian province of Québec, characterized by the effective secularization of government, the creation of a state-run welfare state (état-providence), and realignment of politics into federalist and sovereigntist (or separatist) factions and the eventual election of a pro-sovereignty provincial government in the 1976 election. The societal and economic innovations of the Quiet Revolution, which empowered Québec society, emboldened certain nationalists to push for political independence. Following Duplessis’s death in 1959, Lesage and the Liberals formed a government with a slim majority in 1960, and the “Quiet Revolution” began. The public companies SIDBEC (iron and steel), SOQUEM (mining), REXFOR (forestry) and SOQUIP (petroleum) were created to exploit the province's natural resources. Although Québec was a highly industrialized, urban and relatively outward-looking society in 1960, the Union Nationale party, in power since 1944, seemed increasingly anachronistic as it held tenaciously to a conservative ideology and relentlessly defended outdated traditional values. “Roncarelli v. Duplessis and damages for abuse of power: for what did it stand in 1959 and for what does it stand in 2009?”, Seljak, David Seljak. [43] Within the first few years of his tenure, Drapeau oversaw a series of infrastructure projects, including the expansion of Dorval airport (now Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport), the opening of the Champlain bridge and the renaissance of Old Montreal. [17], Seeking a mandate for its most daring reform, the nationalization of the province's electric companies under Hydro-Québec, the Liberal Party called for a new election in 1962. Canadian Wrongs: What Led to the Internment of Japanese-Canadians? Documentaire québécois. Just after the turn of the 20th century, Quebec underwent a major social change known as the “Quiet Revolution”, which was made politically tangible by the 1960 election. The Catholic Church and its virtues had thrived in Quebec during the Duplessis regime, especially in health and educational matters. The Quiet Revolution is particularly significant for opening up Quebec to the world. Linteau, Paul-Andre, Rene Durocher, and Jean-Claude Robert, Polese, Mario. Thus was the beginning of the Quiet Revolution. [16] Per Professor Claude Belanger of Montreal's Marianopolis College the loss of influence of the RC Church and subsequent abandonment of long adhered to Church teachings concerning procreation was a key factor in Quebec going from having the highest provincial birth rate in 1960 to the lowest in 1970. [28], Rouillard also argues that traditional portrayals of the Quiet Revolution falsely depict it as the rise of Liberalism in Québec. In 1957, the federal government passed the Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act. The notions of civilizational defence and cultural preservation that were at the heart of the corporatist politics of the Duplessis era have not vanished: they have retreated from the altars only to regroup around Québécois culture and … The revolution redefined Quebec’s culture as it is accepted today and promoted the rise of the French middle class. Although the economic reforms slowed down with the recession in the 1980s, the impact of the revolution is still visible today. The 1950s tenure of Quebec Premier Maurice Duplessis epitomized the conservative ideal of a religiously and culturally pure Québec, and became known among liberals as the Grande Noirceur (Great Darkness), although the Richard Riot of 1955 may have signaled growing submerged forces. Quebec’s Nouvelles Religions: Alternative Spirituality after Vatican II and the ‘Quiet Revolution ’ will bring together scholars with research data and interest in thos e small, obscure, “deviant” religions Quebec, hitherto neglected by academics. [44] He also oversaw the construction and inauguration of Place des Arts. 368pp., Pb. He notes the popularity enjoyed by federal Liberal Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier as well as the Premiership of Adélard Godbout as examples of Québec Liberalism prior to the events of the Quiet Revolution. Fruits Of The Quiet Revolution. [22] [19] Today, Hydro-Québec remains a crucial element to the Québec economy, with annual revenues of $12.7 billion Canadian dollars, $1.1 billion going directly into the province's coffers.[20]. The Hydro-Québec project grew to become an important symbol in Québec. "The Quebec quiet revolution: a noisy evolution. During the Quiet Revolution, English Canadians lost their control over the Quebec economy , the Roman Catholic Church became less important, and the Quebec government took over the hydro-electric companies. Quebeckers used to follow the Catholic Church leaders closely, when it came to politics and religion. In case of divorce, the rules for administering the Divorce Act were retained using Québéc's old community property matrimonial regime until 1980, when new legislation brought an automatic equal division of certain basic family assets between spouses. Canadian Wrongs: Reconciliation and Redress for Japanese-Canadians, Canadian Law and Canadian "Wrongs": The Chinese Head Tax, Canadian Wrongs: The Historical Context of the Chinese Head Tax, Canadian Wrongs: Redressing the Chinese Head Tax, Canadian Wrongs: Quebec's Attack on Jehovah's Witnesses, Canadian Wrongs: Jehovah's Witnesses before the Supreme Court of Canada, Canadian Wrongs: Jehovah's Witnesses and the Era of Rights, Canadian Wrongs: The Temporary Foreign Workers Program, Canadian Wrongs: Reforming the Temporary Foreign Workers Program, Canadian Women and the Law: A Selection of Cases, Indigenous Peoples and Treaties in Ontario, Indigenous Peoples and Canadian Law: Making Room for Wampum Belts, Indigenous Peoples and Canadian Law: Making Room for Oral Tradition, Canadian Law and Identity: Multiculturalism, Multiculturalism: Rooted in Bilingualism and Biculturalism, Multiculturalism: The Official Response to the Bi and Bi Commission, http://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/jean-lesage-elected-premier-of-quebec, ← Canadian Law and Religion: Confederation, Canadian Law and Religion: The Charter Era →. Quebec and Religion The study of history has fallen on hard times. Everyday Sacred: Religion in Contemporary Quebec, edited by Hillary Kaell. During the same era of renewed Quebecois nationalism,[1] French Canadians made great inroads into both the structure and direction of the federal government and national policy. [11] Although schools maintained their Catholic or Protestant character, in practice they became secular institutions. The Parent Report on education in the province of Quebec (1963–66) was a key part of the Quiet Revolution that modernized and democratized education in Quebec. [citation needed] Political activist and singer Félix Leclerc wrote: "Our people are the waterboys of their own country.". "Caught in the blind spot: organized labour in revisionist explanations of the Quiet Revolution. For it was in this year that the newly elected Liberal Government of Premier Jean Lesage embarked upon an ambitious plan aimed at modernizing the Quebec economy and society. Despite the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, when the role of the Catholic Church was considerably diminished, Québec society retains the cultural residue of Catholicism. Satanic rock band Messe Noire (Black Mass) performs at deconsecrated Catholic Church in Montreal. Though the improvements made to Québec society during this era make it seem like an extremely innovative period, it has been posited that these changes follow a logical revolutionary movement occurring throughout North America in the 1960s. The Quiet Revolution typically refers to the efforts made by the Liberal government of Jean Lesage (elected in 1960), and sometimes Robert Bourassa (elected in 1970 after the Union Nationale's Daniel Johnson in 1966), though given the profound effect of the changes, most provincial governments since the early 1960s have maintained an orientation based on core concepts developed and implemented in that era. [26], Modern Québec historians have brought some nuance to the importance of the Quiet Revolution. Jean Lesage elected premier of Quebec. Quiet Revolution, period of rapid social and political change experienced in Québec during the 1960s. Religion in Quebec: The bigger picture ... As part of the Quiet Revolution modernizing Quebec, the province creates its first Education Department, wresting control … In addition, until the Quiet Revolution, higher education was accessible to only a minority of French Canadians because of the generally low level of formal education and the expense involved. "Montreal's Economy Since 1930," in, Tanguay. Reforms included: the age for compulsory schooling was raised from 14 to 16, free schooling until the 11th grade, school boards were reorganized, school curricula were standardized, and classical colleges were replaced with CEGEPs (publicly funded pre‑university colleges) in 1965, then the Université du Québec network in 1969—both as an effort to improve access to higher education, geographically and financially. [9] Additionally, more emphasis was placed on the hard sciences, and there was now work for the Québécois who had previously needed to leave the province in order to find jobs in their preferred fields. The publication of his book Les insolences du Frère Untel (1960) quickly sold over 100,000 copies and has come to be recognized as having important impact on the beginning of the Quiet Revolution. "The Quebec quiet revolution: a noisy evolution. 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